The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. KEEN Womens ELSA II Sneaker Crochet Hiking shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Btrada Women Warm Snow Boots Winter Style Soft Waterproof Non-Slip Ankle Boots Zipper Plush Inside FemaleT-JULY Women's Sandal Sequins Pointed Toe Sexy Low Heel Thick Heel Slingback Summer Fashion Ladies Party Club shoes Cambridge Select Women's Faux Fur Quilted Lace-Up Mid-Calf Winter Snow BootKENDALL + KYLIE Women's Giselle Sandalgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Hbvza Rhinestone high Heels shoes Woman Sandals Women shoes women Sapato Feminino Sandalias Femme Ladies Summer Women's Party shoes Women Sandals red 9and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Wallhewb Women's Fashion Thin High Heels shoes Girls Sexy Party Knee-High Boot Plus Sizes 32-45 Girl Leg Length Girl Reasing Fashion Elegant Leg Length bluee 4.5 M US High-Heeled shoesWomen Wedges Platform shoes Mesh Air Breathable Slip on shoes Female Platform Casual SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,T.U.K. Original Footwear Unisex A9216 Leather Interlace SneakerSkechers Womens Vaso - Cordon Fashion SneakerFei shi ji Women Super-High Heel 15cm Pump Platform shoes Boots Sandals,US7.5-12(EUR38-44) K-009A PinkWorld of Clogs Toffeln Flexi Clog 0747 Flexible Open Antistatic Theatre Clogs - White I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Women Hiking shoes Mesh Mountain Light Rubber Walking Climbing Trekking Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. ASO-SLING Womens Fashion Sneakers with Platform Thick Sole Lace Up Trainers Sporting Running shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Women's shoes 5 Inch Heel Strap Sandal With Snake (Black;5)and Women's Booties, High Heel Suede Scrub Round Head Mid Tube Martin Boots Ladies Fall Winter New Thick Heel Fashion Boots (color C, Size 41)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Odema Womens Flat Sandals Summer Bohemian Beaded Beach Thong Dressy SandalsLauren Ralph Lauren Women's Corala Espadrille Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Women Ankle Boots Square Block Heel Booties Retro Winter shoes Casual Round Toe Office Short BootsWhite Mountain Womens Elinie Fabric Open Toe Casual, White Smooth, Size 6.0Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Wamba By Victoria Unisex Adults' Copete Elásticos Rejilla Bicolor Trainers BrownNautilus Safety Footwear Women's 1393 Work shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Skechers Sport Women's Valeris Fashion SneakerSpring Step Women's Tulisa shoes color Silver Leather shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Superga 2750 Cobinu, Unisex Adults’ Low-Top Sneakers GreyWomen's Booties, Retro Thick Heel Small Leather shoes Ankle Boots Martin Boots Low-Heel Ladies Belt Buckle Fashion Boots (color B, Size 35) Women's High Heel Sandals 2019 New PU Buckle Belt Platform shoes Peep Toe Novelty shoes Wedding Party Evening Dress shoes,Black,40Women's Booties, Zipper Leather Thick Heel Keep Warm Bare Boots Ladies High Heel Fashion Ankle Boots Red Black Pink (color C, Size 34)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: WeiPoot Women's Pu High-Heels Open-Toe Solid Buckle Sandals, EGHLH007896Franco Sarto Womens Shauna Ballet Flatfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Fabulicious Women's Lip 108RS Dress SandalThe Fix Women's Nash Floral Embroidery Oval Heel Ankle Bootie There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMaxstar 4 Belt Synthetic Leather Wedge Heel Knee Height BootsWomen's high Heel Sandals, Sandals, Summer Ladies' Sandals.AmoonyFashion Women's Frosted Kitten-Heels Pointed-Toe Assorted color Sandals, BUTLT007784AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Buckle Pu Solid High-Heels Sandals, BUTLT007489 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ASICS Women's Gel-movimentum 1192a002-001 Running shoesAnkle Boots Velvet Autumn Boots Sexy Hoof High Heel Women shoes Side Zipper Winter Footweartherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women Hand-Sewn Leather Loafers Slip-On Moccasins shoes Round Toe Casual Driving Flats).Pleaser Women's Delight 650 SandalsIrregular Choice Mahna Mahna - Pink Multi Fabric (Textile) Womens Heels However,Kirabon Ladies Fashion Temperament Elegant Simple Slim Super High Heel Stiletto Sexy Sandals (color Red, Size 36)T-JULY Summer Casual Platform shoes Fashion High Heels shoes for Women Wedges Heigh Increasing Sneakers shoes Loafers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Rieker Women flat Slipper bluee, (black navy graphit) M6269-01

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