The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. WENJUN Shallow Mouth Pointed High Heels Female Students Wild Fashion Thin Personality shoes Work Professional shoes (color Apricot, Size 37)The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Spring Step Women's Tulisa shoes color Silver Leather shoesWebb Perkin Women Square Low Heel Boots Sexy Lace Up Stretch Fabric Fashion Boots Over The Knee Boots Btrada Women Square Heel Dual Use Wedges Indoor Slides Slippers Summer Ladies Comfortable Dress SandalsLadies Booties, Personality Temperament High Heel Elastic Force Fashion Boots Women's Pointed Thick Heel Martin Boots (color Black Single, Size 42)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, LANSEL Single shoes Spring and Summer Women's shoes Flat with Ankle Boots Hollow Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Women Strap Flat Ponted Toe Zipper Closure Ankle Height with Buckles Adjustment Faux SuedeNew York Yankees Fibona 2, Women’s TrainersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Clarks Breccan Myth - Tan Suede (Brown) Womens BootsLFL by Lust for Life Womens Li-Rainbow Flat SandalFANIC Women's Running shoes Workout Fitness Sneakers Athletic Lightweight Casual Sports shoes (40 M EU 9.5 B(M) US, Grey)Btrada Women's Fashion Sequins Heeled Slides Sandals Sexy Pointy Toe Backless Slip On Pumps Mules I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Fabulicious Women's Lip 108RS Dress Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Nike Women's Zoom Winflo 2 Running shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Cha Cha Boot Adult shoes Black - Size 11and AVENBER Women Casual Boots Ladies Mid Calf Jeans Side Zipper Round Toe Retro High Heel Denim Short Plush Patchwork shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Naturalizer Women's Gadget Flats shoes, Red, 7.5MWomen's Booties, Fall Winter New Zipper Martin Boots Pointed Stiletto Heel Ladies Low-Heel Fashion Ankle Boots (color Brown Thick Hair, Size 43)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Pleaser Womens FLAMINGO-1017SRS C-B M Boots Clear BlackUnicrystal Women's Flower Patterned with Crystal Rhinestone Wedding Party shoes Mid-Heel SandalsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? PUMA Womens Tsugi Shinsei WN's SneakerWomen's Booties, Fall Winter New Thick Heel Martin Boots Ladies Low-Heel Fashion Ankle Boots (color A, Size 38)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?100 Points Women Platform Slip On Loafers Comfort Suede Moccasins Wide Low Top Wedge shoes BlackHigh Heels Sandals Women Stiletto Heel Classic Court shoes Pump Peep Toe Ladies Sexy shoes,EU38-41,Yellow,EU42.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Wild Diva Women Leatherette Strappy Cutout Buckle Combat Boot DE22 - BlackLace-Up Ankle Boots for Ladies Winter Plus Velvet Thickening Flat Platform Snow Boots Women's Cotton shoes WeiPoot Women's High-Heels Solid Lace-up Pu Pointed-Toe Sandals, EGHLH007820Lucky Brand Womens Fausst Ankle BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: AmoonyFashion Women's Pu Open-Toe Low-Heels Buckle Solid Sandals, BUTLT007748AmoonyFashion Women's Solid Pu High-Heels Open-Toe Buckle Sandals, BUTLT007690factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.SENERY Women Winter Soft Knee-high Rain Boots Buckle Waterproof Motorcycle Bowtie Round Toe Ankle BootiesFay Waters Women Wedges Sandals Printed Owl High Heel Slippers Non-Slip Beach Flip Flops There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSexy Women Silver Rhinestone Wedding shoes Platform Pumps Crystal High Heels shoesXUERUI Soft and Comfortable Round High Heels Fine with Atmospheric High-end Black High Heels (Size EU37 UK4.5-5 CN37).Romika Womens Ibiza 70 Leather SandalsT-JULY Women Mixed colors Wedges Sneakers Spring Autumn Fashion Plush Casual shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Converse Womens Chuck Taylor All Star Hi Textile Sequin TrainersZ.SUO Women's Leather Classic Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Calaier Womens Catheater Closed-Toe 2CM Block Heel Slip-on Mule shoes).Sam Edelman Womens Vivian Closed Toe Casual Slide SandalsCalaier Womens Cahealth Closed-Toe 1.5CM Block Heel Slip-on Mule shoes However,T-JULY Autumn Winter Boots Women's Lace Up Flock Female Party shoes Round Toe Ankle Boots shoes Zipper Chunky Low Heel BootsAdeeSu Womens Square Heels Tassels Imitated Suede Boots SXE04723 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.LHJY New Sandals Muffins Women's shoes Summer New Women's Korean Version Flat Heel Casual Muffin Women's shoes Beach shoes

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