The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Hoxekle Women Knee High Snow Boot Round Toe Winter Warm Long Boots Round Toe Platform Suede Plush Fur Outdoor shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Hoxekle Fashion Women Boots Keep Warm Down Snow Boots Thick Fur Mid Calf Winter BootsHoxekle Over The Knee Boots Woman Suede 8.5CM High Heel Boots 52CM Tube High Heel Square Heel Round Toe shoes T-JULY Women Air Mesh Lace-up Platform Wedges Casual shoes Ladies Spring Summer High Heel SneakersWomen Suede Ankle Boots Round Toe Square Chunky Heel Booties Zip-up Metal Ring Fashion Chelsea Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Hoxekle Winter Women Snow Boots Flat Non-Slip Winter shoes Women Plush Waterproof Ankle Boots Warm Winter Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. T-JULY Autumn Winter Stretch Fabric Boots Peep Toe High Heel Boots Sexy Ankle Boots Women Zipper SandalsJancoco Max Women Fashion Slides Slippers Soft Sandals Luxury Real Raccoon Fur FlatWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Hoxekle Women Snow Boots Winter Women Keep Warm Lace Up shoes Autumn Female Platform Ankle Boots Woman FootwearHoxekle Fashion Women Boots Rabbit Ears Sweet Style Ankle Boots Round Toe with Fur Non-Slip Plush Snow BootsJambu Womens Melon Mj Mary Jane FlatRoxy Women's Austin Boot Ankle Bootie Black 6 M US I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Hoxekle Women Knee-Hight Boots Winter Warm Steampunk Gothic Vintage Style Punk Buckle Military Combat Lace up), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. KEREE Womens Classic Pointy Toe Ballet Flats Loafers PU Leather Casual Slip On Dress Low Flat shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Webb Perkin Women Platform Warm Plush Long Boots Fashion Sexy Belt Buckle Zipper shoes Lady Over The Knee Bootsand JOE N JOYCE Womens Sandals London SynSoft Soft-Footbed Embossed). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, DANDANJIE Womens Martin Boots Retro Flat Heel Tube Short Boots Autumn and WinterWomen's High Heel Sandals 2019 Summer Stiletto PVC Peep Toe Buckle, Fashion Ladies Ultra High Heels Party Dress Court shoes,A,39during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Tidewater Womens Boardwalk Flip Flop SandalsWebb Perkin Women for Women Suede 8.5Cm High Heel Boots 52Cm Tube High Heel shoes Fashion Over The Knee BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nine West Women's TAGO Fabric MuleKOLHAPURI CHAPPAL Original Designer’s Royal Look Rubin fine Braids Flat Heel Ladies Slipper SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?KKEPO& Plus Size Kid Suede Classical Shallow Women Dress shoes 6cm 8cm 10cm 12cm Thin High Heels Sexy Woman Party Pumps Red Suede 12cm 9.5Ruby Shoo Womens Karolina Black Low Heel Ankle Boots Size.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).T-JULY Women Genuine Leather Flat Loafers Slip-on Oxford Ballerines Creepers shoesJosef Seibel - Fabia 11-8751130000FABIA11 Women's shoes PVC Summer Fall Club Sandals shoes Heels Wedge Heel Crystal Heel for Party & EveningVagabond Zoe, Women’s Trainers WhiteThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: New Summer Slope with Women's sandals high-Heeled Waterproof Platform shoes Pearl Decorative Fashion Small Size Women's shoes (high 9cm and high 12cm) (color 12cm high, Size 39)Geox Women's D Eleni Sneakersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Btrada Women Slip-On Fashion Platform Low Heel Sandals Ladies Summer Beach Casual Sandals Peep Toe shoesWomen's Casual Platform Wedges Sneakers Female Painting Pattern Mesh Breathable Sport shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNine West Women's Osillyyou Leather Flat BeigeMEIZOKEN Women's Sport Sandals,Fashion Summer Platform Chunky Sandals Wedges Ankle Buckle Strap Casual shoes.T-JULY Fashion Winter Women Mid Calf High Hoof Heels Boots Sequined Cloth Pointed Toe Platform Zip shoesJulitia Super Thin High Heels 15CM Platform Ankle Boots Female Motorcycle shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Eora-2sl shoes Woman Big Size 33-43 Casual Mules shoes Rhinestone Elegant Slippers Prom shoesStyle & Co Amorie Women US 10 Black Mid Calf Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (SUNNY Store Wide Calf Boots, Round Toe High Heel shoes Solid color Suede Martin Boots).Nine West Womens Marquisa Leather PumpLadies Wedding Spikes shoes Stud Pointed Toe Slip on Thin High Heels Women Rivet Sandals However,Chatties Ladies Woven Chain Nubuck SandalsWeenFashion Women's Open Toe Buckle Blend Materials High-Heels Sandals,AMGLX007136 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Girls Socks Boots Women Over The Knee High Boots Spring Winter Knitted shoes Long Thigh High Boots

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