The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. pinkG Women's Leather Sneaker Art Lace Up Platform Casual shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Rain Boot Solid black 6De Blossom Collection Pita-33 Women Buckle Strap Elastic Knee High Riding Boots,Nude,6 FINDYOU Fashion New Square Toe Chunky Thick Heels Women Pumps gold Silver Lady Dress OL shoes Party shoesWomen Ankle Strap shoes,Summer Low Mid High Heel Strappy Wedges Peep Toe Sandals Size Ladiesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Clarks Women's Aubria Muse Mary Jane Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Merrell Women's Eagle Hiking BootWomens Snow Boots Fashion Wedge Heel Student Warm 2018 Winter shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Amy Q Women's Silver Thigh High Boots Superstar shoes Pointed Toe Over The Knee BootsGTVERNH Women's shoes in Autumn and Winter Pointcuts Chelsea Boots Short Boots British Wind Martin Boots Women's Boots.Camel color Thirty-SevenAdeeSu Womens Nubuck Kitten-Heels Solid Brown Urethane Boots SXE04301-9.5 B(M) USOld Friend Women's Soft-Sole Moccasin Slipper I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GAOLIM Women shoes Summer Terrace Toe High Heels with Thin Buckle Sandals Pointed High-Heeled shoes (6-8Cm)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. SPLNWTFHCNWPCB Ladies Latin Dance shoes for Adults Soft Sole Comfortable Dancing shoes Non-Slip wear Dance shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, SPLNWTFHCNWPCB Lady Modern Dance shoes Ballroom Dance Soft Sole Dancing shoesand Real Fur Boots for Women Black Female Over The Knee Boot Long High Heel Ladies Winter Brown shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, So Danca CH52 2'' Heel Character shoes TanWomen's Sneakers, 2018 Autumn The Couple Running shoes Sports shoes Thick-Soled shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Gola Women’s Bullet Mirror Trainers Black goldLiliana Women Faux Suede Camouflage Lace Up Side Zip Hidden Wedge Sneaker GD90Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? T-JULY Woman Super High Heel Canvas Casual shoes Ladies White Lacing Leisure Casual Platform Wedges shoesT-JULY Womens Ladies Fashion Platform Rivets Studded Pointed Toe Pumps Ankle Strap Middle Heel Roman Sex Dress Party SlidesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?AllhqFashion Women's Open Toe Cow Leather Low Heels Solid Sandals with Buckle and BurnishedFranco Sarto Womens Lennon Ankle Bootie.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Ladies Boots Casual shoes Martin Boots Ankle Boots High Block Heeled Zipper Boots Winter BootsFANTURE Women's House Slippers Moccasins Slip On Micro Suede Faux Fur Lined Indoor & Outdoor-U418WMT009-tan-38 WeenFashion Women's Solid Pu Kitten-Heels Hook-and-Loop Open-Toe Sandals, AMGLX010535Rockport Womens Tm Zosia Thong Flat SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Women's high Heels - Fashion Pointed Sexy shoes, high Heel Cloth, Wild Wedding shoesForever Link JJF shoes Women's High Heel Almond Toe Lace up Ankle Synthetic Boots Leopard 5.5factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.DANDANJIE Women's shoes College Style Pastoral Loafers Bow Buckle Mary Jane shoesWeiPoot Women's Soft Material Solid High-Heels Buckle Open-Toe Sandals There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWeiPoot Women's Patent Leather High-Heels Peep-Toe Buckle Sandals,EGHLH007054WeiPoot Women's Solid Pu Kitten-Heels Open-Toe Buckle Sandals, EGHLH007499.AllhqFashion Women's PU Peep-Toe High-Heels Buckle Solid SandalsHEETIST Women's Platform Ankle Boots-Chunky Block Heel Lace up Waterproof Motorcycle Combat Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Slippers Wedge Slippers Ms. Sandals Summer Wild Flat Word Women Slipper Wedge Sandals, 8cm (color Black, Size 38)WeiPoot Women's Soft Material Buckle Peep Toe High-Heels Solid Sandals with Sequintherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (LVYING Women's Slip On Flats shoes Soft Handmade Retro Summer Sandals Casual Nonslip Comfortable Footwear).AmoonyFashion Women's Kitten-Heels Square Closed Toe Pumps-shoes, BUSDT002774AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Assorted color Buckle Sandals,BUTLT007202 However,Summer Sandals for Women High Heels Dark bluee Lace up Pointed Toe Ladies Heeled Sandal shoesL'Artiste by Spring Step Womens Icaria Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Low-Heels Pu Solid Buckle Sandals, BUTLS007341

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