The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. - ALLISON Sandals Womens goldThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,- CALPIERRE Boots Womens Suede Black- BOTTICELLI LIMITED Loafers-shoes Womens Leather Silver COGNAC Sperry Men's, gold Ultralite ASV Boat shoesBrown Red Danner Men's Mountain 600 4.5 Hiking Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, - CALPIERRE Pumps-shoes Womens Leather orangeand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Black Bucksoft Mephisto Women's Agave SandalBlack Bogs Womens Rain Boot GlitterWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Black Dark Grey ASICS Women's Gel Nimbus 21 Running shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,- CALPIERRE Pumps-shoes Womens Suede Red- Dr. Brinkmann Damen-Pantolette pink (42)Black Black Ash Women's AS-Lucky SneakerBeige Multi Frye Women's Billy Shootie Ankle Boot I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Black strips Cowboy Stretch high Boots high Heel Over The Knee Thick Pointed Martin Boots Female Autumn Winter), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Dark Red Leather Ted Baker Mens Thawne Sneaker), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, gold 9cm Glitter High Heels Sequins Scarpins Pumps Silver gold Escarpins Scarpins Talons shoesand Light Pink Ted Baker Womens Skalett Skalett Pump). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, C Adidas Men's Ultraboost LTD Running shoesNavy Citron Saucony Mens Hurricane Iso 5 Running shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Grey Black Shock Yellow Adidas Men's Ultraboost 19 Running shoesSugar Loeffler Randall Womens Phyllis-SKS PumpLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Pewter Metallic Sheepskin Trask Womens Ali Round Toe LoafersFootwear White Core Black Silver Metallic adidas Men's UltraBOOST ST Running shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?A Women's Leather shoes Spring & Fall Fashion Ankle Heel shoes Dress shoes Zipper Martin Boots Elastic Socks shoes Walking shoes (color A, Size 37)Claret 5.5cm Women Chunky Heel Increasing Over The Knee Boots Stretch Scrub Suede Thigh High Boots Comfortable Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Brown Pu Premier Standard - Women's Lace Up Over Knee High Sexy Boots - Side Zipper Comfortable Walking BootsBlack Nine Seven Women's Genuine Leather Pointed Toe Stiletto Heel Handmade Glossy and Comfortable Spring Summer Pumps shoes Black Clear Emerald Cool Grey Dark Grey Nike Women's Air Max Run Lite 5 Running shoesMagenta Gentle Souls by Kenneth Cole Women's Gisele T-Strap Wedge Sandal SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: CBLACK CBLACK CBLACK Adidas Men's UltraboostCognac Mezlan Mens Ian Moccasinfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Taupe Yellow Box Women's CruzeWine Red T-JULY Women's Rome Flock Low Heels Dress Shopping Simple Style Stretch Over-The-Knee Boots Plus Size There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeBlack Polished Soft Full Grain Frye Women's Lena Zip LowRed fluff Genuine Leather Heel Women Snow Boots Wool Warm Female Winter Boots Female Military Boots.Cascade Brown Tawny Olive Keen Utility Men's Braddock Mid Steel Toe Work BootBlack Pumpkin La Sportiva Wildcat 2.0 GTX Men's Trail Running shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Clear Women's PVC Transparent Sandals Women's shoes High-Heeled Fish Mouth After The Belt with No Lining Fashion Sandals(Heel Height 11-13cm)RED Single shoes Female Thick with Pointed British Wind with Women's shoes Deep Mouth Single shoes with Women's Small shoes Women's Work shoes (color Black, Size 35)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Black Green UB-ONEMIX Unisex Air Cushion Outdoor Sport Music Ritmo Deportivas Running shoes).gold KAANAS Womens Kingston Tassel Flat Loafer Slide shoes PumpWhite Silver ASICS Solution Speed FF shoes Men's Tennis However,Charcoal Oiled Suede Frye Women's Sabrina Double Buckle BootTobacco Antelope Women's 456 Leather Half Dorsay Mule I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Court purple , court purple Nike - Air More Money

Cognac Mezlan Mens Devon Loafer Fatigue Oiled Suede Frye Women's Sabrina 6G Lace-Up Boot

- Nike AIR Jordan 12 Retro (GS) - 510815-006