The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Vionic Women's Solana Heelsed Sandals in SaddleThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,L@YC Women's High Heels Summer and Autumn Fine with Overprinting Dew Bag Dance shoesMen's shoes Pointed Toe Leather Formal Business shoes 2018 Spring Fall Winter Comfort Novelty shoes Wedding Dress Party & Evening (color bluee, Size 44) CYBLING Outdoor Casual Lightweight Womens Hiking shoes for Mountaineering WalkingONCEFIRST Womens Ankle Strap Closed Toe Low Heel Dress Pumpsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Spring Step Women's Konak shoes color Green Leather shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. INOE CREATE GLAMOUR Fashion Real Fox Fur Winter Snow Boots Women Winter shoes Cow Split Leather Waterproof Boots Black BrownGioseppo Women's 48916 Low-Top SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

MARC ELLIS Pumps-shoes Womens Leather Black

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women's Sneakers, Women Casual Leather shoes, Warm Thick-Soled Old Daddy shoes Fashion Female Korean Harajuku (color Black, Size 39)CYBLING Fashion Mid Heel Thick Sole Lace Up Square Toe Platform Oxford shoes for WomenTSIODFO Men's Driving Penny Dress Loafers Suede Leather Driver Moccasins Slip On shoes (2088-Grey-40)Nine Seven Suede Leather Women's Pointed Toe Stiletto Heel Zip Ankle Handmade Boots Bowtie I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men's Leather shoes 2018 Autumn Authentic Business Dress Men's Lace Up shoes Men's shoes Breathable Comfortable shoes Formal Business Work shoes (color A, Size 40)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Charles by Charles David Women's Delicious 2), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Legero Women Lace-Up shoes Tanaro 4.0 pink, (POWDER) 2-00820-56and Women's shoes Small White shoes Female Summer and Autumn Breathable shoes Hong Kong Style Casual Sneakers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Women Summer Gladiator Sandals Women Sexy Thin High Heels Sandals Party Wedding shoesMe Too Women's Aimee Ballet Flatduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Superga Women's 2750-SYNTHETIC SNAKEW Trainers, brown (Taupe Black G65), 2.5Men's Formal shoes Fall Winter Vintage Oxfords Wedding Party Novelty shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Naturalizer Women's Corin Slip Ons Bronze SnakeAutumn Melody Men's Handmade Leather Flip Flops Unique Rubber Slippers Casual SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Rocky Men's RKK0229 Construction Boot BrownDickies Tiber Super Safety Trainer.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Converse Womens Chuck Taylor All Star Glitter Canvas Low Top SneakerJosef Seibel Marem 06 Womens Leather Lace Up Ankle Boots Men's Boots Martin Boots Men's Autumn and Winter New Leather Two-Layer Leather England Boots Men's High-top shoes Leather Men's Boots (color Black, Size 39)Lady Slippers Ladies Home Interior Leather Tendon Casual Slippers Breathable Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Baisc Classic Simple Style SlippersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Nine West Womens Mathias Satin PumpONGUARD 97591 Latex 12 Hazmat Men's Boot and shoes Cover, Yellow, Size 2Xfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Daniel Hechter Women's 927293613469 TrainersCreative Recreation Modica Athletic Men's shoes Size Charcoal There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeLacoste Men's Straightset 216 1 Light Grey sneakers-and-athletic-shoes 8 MLXLA- Men's Casual Comfortable Slip-On Leather shoes, Mens Youth Round Head Plain Toe Loafers for Men (color orange, Size 7.5 US 6.5 UK).Women's shoes Leatherette Winter Fashion Boots Ankle Boots Platform shoes Mid-Calf Boots Formal shoes Boots Flat Heel Booties Pointed Toe (color B-Keep Warm Boots, Size 35)QianZuLian Women Flats Pumps Lace Round Head Slip On Dress shoes Comfort for Walking Leisure At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, U.S. Polo - FIAMA4043S8_T1 White 39O-NEX Womens Maggy Wedge Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Nine Seven Patent Leather Women's Square Toe Chunky Heel Handmade Stunning Retro Ankle Boots).ASICS GelFoundation 13 shoes Women's RunningNine Seven Women's Patent Leather Pointed Toe Mid Chunky Heel Handmade Elegant Two Tone Fashion Work Dress Ankle Boots However,YRU Aiire, gold Hologram SneakerASICS Women's Gel-Kayano 22 Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Nine Seven Suede Leather Women's Round Toe Chunky Mid Heel Side Zipper Handmade Graceful Dress Ankle Boots

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