The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Magnum Unisex Stealth Force 8.0 SZ CT CP CSA Certified Military and Tactical BootThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Kenneth Cole New York Mens Fare Game Slip-On LoaferMen's Outdoor Sports Tooling Boots Lace-Up Two Side Zipper Faux Leather Combat Boots,Single shoes & Plus Cotton,Blacksingleshoes,47 Adidas Marquee Boost shoes Junior's BaskebtallZGR Women's Classic Suede Leather Upper, Faux Fur Linning Short Mid Calf Winter Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Spring Step Women's Abila shoes color Tan Leather shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Antelope Women's 607 Leather Open Cut BootieT-JULY New Snow Boots Women Fashion Keep Warm Winter Boots Round Toe Platform Knee High Boots Female shoes Plus Size 35-44We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Dr. Martens R22170220 Women's Carmelita Open Heel Lace Up BootARIAT Womens Quickdraw Legacy Western BootVince Women's Blair 5 SneakerNike Texas Longhorns Free Trainer V7 SG College Collection shoes - Size Men's 13 M US I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Adidas Mens EQT Support 93 17 Textile Trainers), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Men's Boots, Casual Personality Martin Boots Fall Winter Top Embossed Leather Lace-Up Chelsea Boots,Black,39), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Sol Sana Womens Mavis Heeland Easy Spirit Women's Iwander Pewter18-5203 Pewter18-5203 Grey 6.5 M US). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Women's Booties, Leather Winter Fashion Boots Chunky Heel Booties Ankle Boots Ladies Comfortable Square Head Martin Boots (color B, Size 34)Palladium - Pallabosse HI Zip - 95942010Mduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Dr. Martens Women's 1460 Pascal Mono 8-Eye Casual BootSpring Step Flamenco Women's SandalLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nike Women's WMNS Air Max 90 Running shoesAdidas - X 184 TF - BB9412And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?AdTec Men's 9 Steel-Toe Super Logger BootWolverine Men's W03146 Wellington Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).CHEXIAO Sandals Women's High Heels, Fine High Heel Female Feel Hollow Pointed shoes with Sandals (color Black, Size 34)Women's shoes Leather Spring Summer Buckle Driving shoes National Style Sandals Slippers & Flip-Flops Personality Walking shoes Office Breathable (color A, Size 40) LXLA- Mens Business Formal Dress Leather shoes, Men's Casual Lace Up Derby shoes Comfortable Loafers for MenCALTO - G99809-3.2 Inches Taller - Height Increasing Elevator shoes (Black Zip-up Square-Toe Boots)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Merrell Men's All Out Blaze Vent Mid Waterproof Hiking Boot GreyAdrianna Papell Women's Jenna Pumpfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Spring Step Womens Gaspar BootBlack Brown Zipper Round Square Knee Top Thigh Boots Casual Knight Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeTalk about heaven 2018 Genuine Leather Boots Wool Fur Fashion Knee high Boots Women Warm Wool Boots Winter Snow BootsVista Women Boots beige, (green) 11-00407 SAVANNE.COLMAR ORIGINALS Men's MCBI37175 Yellow Suede SneakersPapillio Womens Lana Leather Black Sandals 9 US At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, CAT Lifestyle Mens Science shoes Dark Cloud Size UK 7 EU 41PUMA Womens Turin II Faux Leather Softfoam Casual shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (WLJSLLZYQ Fall and Winter Fashion Men's Youth Sports shoes Casual shoes Suede Men's shoes).ANTIDOTI Women's MCGLCAB000005043E Green Leather SandalsAndrea Outdoor Series Hiking Casual Women's Ankle High Boots However,Merrell Mens Moab 2 Vent MID WP SR Boulder BootsRieker Womens 658P9 Regina P9 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.ADIDE Men Breathable 350 V2 Lace-up Lightweight Sneakers Popular Zebra shoes

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