The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. colorful Dream- 2018 New Female Winter Boots Snow Boots Warm Women's Winter Boots with Wool Fur Comfortable Genuine Leather Women's shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Sam Edelman Womens Penny 2 Equestrian BootWomen's Ankle Boot, Mary Jane Mid Block Heel Lace Up Comfortable Handmade Leather Boots Evening Work shoes Naot Nala, Velvet Nubuck Black Luster Leather, 35 (US Women's 4) MDansko Women's, Marty Slip on Clogsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Vionic Men's Lono Lace Up Sneaker in Light Greyand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Frye Womens Alexa Strappy Sandal Flat SandalDr. Martens Womens Delphine Fashion BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Vionic Women's Virginia Moccasin in NudeMerrell Women's All Out Blaze 2 Mid Waterproof HikingJessica Simpson Women's Zamia Ankle BootPikolinos Sandals W0H-0579 Black Antilles I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. - Yonex Power Cushion Aerus 3 Mens Indoor Court shoes (bluee)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. STC Press Men's Work Boot, Black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Drew shoes Women's Genevar Oxfordsand Baked Pink White ASICS Women's Gel Nimbus 21 Running shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, New Balance 574S Suede mesh GreyBoaonda Non Slip shoes for Women - Professional Waterproof shoes - Noahduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Earth Origins Oxford Flinn Navy BlackESSEX GLAM Womens Over The Knee Flat Heel Stretch Thigh High Winter BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Puma Safety Womens Stepper WMNS MidMen's Pointed Leather shoes, Stone Pattern Leather, Business Men's shoes, Comfortable Low-top shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Comfy Moda Women's Fashion Winter Ice Snow Boots Wool Lining Cold Weather Water Resistant FlurryEcco Women's Sculptured 45 Dress Pump.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Men's Crocodile Pattern Business Dress Oxford shoes Casual shoes Office shoesLadies Booties, Chunky Heel Comfortable Square Head Ankle Boots Women's Fall Winter Boots (color B, Size 38) FABI Boots Womens Suede RedCharles David Charles Womens GURU BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: SALOMON Women's XA Pro 3D W Trail Running shoesTed Baker Camyli Mens shoes Blackfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Leoci Performance Turf Soccer shoes - Men and Boy Soccer shoes Indoor Soccer CleatPalladium Unisex Adults' Lite+ Lc Txwp U Hi-Top Trainers, (Black 315), 8 UK There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeFrye Women's Lucinda Scrunch Short BootWarm Winter Women Over The Knee Boots Sexy Pointed Toe Pu Boot Thin Heels Lady shoes Big Size 43.Easy Spirit Women's TRAVELTIME273 MuleMBT Men's 90000503L Black Rubber Sandals At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Puma Women's Suede Jelly Casual Sneakers from Finish LineAltra AFM1833G Men's Escalante 1.5 Running shoes, Red - 11.5 D(M) UStherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women's Latin shoes Ballroom shoes Leatherette Heel Buckle Stiletto Heel Dance shoes Party & Evening (color C, Size 40)).Vionic with Orthaheel Pippa Women's Sandal 8 C D US pink goldNike AIR MAX 1 PRM womens fashion-sneakers 454746 However,L.K. Bennett Women's Sersha Dress PumpGoodyear Footwear Reveal Steel Toe Work Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Nina Womens Filia Wedge Pump

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