The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Davinci 1037 Women's Italian Snake Skin Square Toe HeelsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,THE SELLER 2140 Women's Mid Heel Slide stape SandalDominici 2012 Designer Women's Dress Casual Leather Low Heel Square Toe shoes Merrell Mens All Out Blaze 2 WTPF Hiking shoesImagine Vince Camuto Women's Price Dress Sandal Beigegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Burgundy Earth shoes Womens Sparta Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Hugo Women's Adrienne-c 10202344 01 Low-Top SneakersWLJSLLZYQ Casual shoes Fashion Men's feet shoes Trends Lazy PeopleWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Converse Men's All Star Modern, Grey WhiteGeox - U Nebula BBearpaw Women's Rosie Shearling Boots 1653-W HickoryImpo Goya Wedge Ankle Boots, Steel Grey, 5.5 US I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GouuoHi Womens Sport Female Casual Small White shoes Sports Flat shoes colorful Lace Students Classic Wild Comfortable Breathable Stylish shoes Sneakers), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Nine West Womens Iselin Wool Ankle Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Mizuno Mens Wave Paradox 3 Running shoesand Adidas Courtvantage Adicolor Mens Green). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Official Brand Dunlop Oregon Steel Toe Cap Safety Boots Mens Charcoal Yellow Work shoesNew Balance Women's Vazee Verge v1 Track shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). ECCO shoes Women's Soft 7 Lace Fashion Sneakers, pink Dust, 41 EU 10-10.5 M USCole Haan Men's Madison Plain OxfordLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Badgley Mischka Womens Harlene PumpNike Men's Air Zoom Mariah Flyknit Racer Running shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Dr. Martens Womens Pascal W Zip Combat BootHush Puppies Women's Daystar Thong Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Diadora Match Hi-Beat S3 HRO Mens Safety Boots BlackPUMA Mens Rs-x Toys Hotwheels Camaro Sneaker Geox shoes U64H5C-0ME22-C9999 U Black AveryWhite Mountain Lefty Knee High Boot - Brown Sueded, 6 MThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: MILWAUKEE RIDERS Men's Combat Boots Casual Motorcycle Army Workwear Wide Cycling Boots with Lace Up Front & Side Zipper BlackAntelope Women's 574 Leather Smooth Block Heel Bootiefactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Elegant Footwear Calcia Women's Scrunched Riding Boot BlackCole Haan Womens Rockland Boot Equestrian Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeA&N Womens Spikes Stilettos Low-Cut Uppers Pointed-Toe Silver Urethane Pumps shoesAriat Women's Broadway Work Boot.Aquatalia Women's Ashlynn Embossed Met Calf Sneaker,Saucony Sneakers Jazz Original White - Grey, Mens. At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Women Oxford leather shoes E255Jessica Simpson Women's Zamia Ankle Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Alma en Pena Women's New York Beaded Suede Mules bluee).BeautiFeel Womens Aline Ballet FlatGabor, Women's, Tote, Low-Top Sneakers However,Johnston & Murphy Men's Conard Saddle OxfordECCO shoes Men's Vitrus I Brogue Oxford, Espresso, 46 EU 12-12.5 M US I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Bowlerstore Men's Classic Plus Rental Bowling shoes, 11 US M, bluee Red Cream

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