The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Red White bluee Stars Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Watercolor Maple Leaf Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Dog Paw Footprint Bone Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag WeiPoot Womens Closed Pointed Toe Mid Heel Wedge Frosted PU Solid Pumps with Metalornament, pinkred, 7.5 B(M) USUnm Women's Round Toe Pumps with Platform - Nightclub Sexy Snake Pattern High Heel - Slip on Chunky shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Hand Drawn Flamingo Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bagand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. AmoonyFashion Women's Zipper Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Frosted Sandals, BUTLT005711AmoonyFashion Women's Round Closed Toe Lace-up Pu Assorted color Pumps-shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Bright colorful Circles Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Uman Skulls and Vintage pink Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagWomen's Canvas shoes Casual Sneakers,Low Cut Lace Up Fashion Comfortable Walking Flats Twisted Womens,Lace-Up Sneaker (color Yellow, Size 35)AmoonyFashion Women's Patent Leather Kitten-Heels Hook-and-Loop Open-Toe Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Retro Tartan Checkered Pattern Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Beautiful pinks Birds Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Dinosaur Play Basketball Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bagand Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Little White Rabbit Pink Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, August Jim Womens Flats shoes,Slip-on Pointed Toe Bowknot Classics Ballets shoes BlackPleaser Womens Asp608uv C Npn Platform Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). World's Softest Socks, Cozy Open Toe SlippersWomen's Pumps,Casual Square-Toe Chunky Heel Apricot Mary Jane shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Azura Lenox Beige 38 M EUWeenFashion Women's High-top Pull-on Soft Material Low-Heels Round Closed Toe BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Two Dolphins Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Funny Summer Watermelon Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Labrador Puppy Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Floral Pigs Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag WeenFashion Women's Lace up Pointed Closed Toe Low Heels Solid Pumps-shoesTDA Women's Trendy color Block Rhinestones Pearl Wedding Dress Stiletto PumpsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Dr. Brinkmann Damen-Tiefbett grey (9)Women Boots Casual Rabbit Fur Warm Flats Boots Women Fashion Lady Snow Boots shoes Women womenfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.My Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Exotic Frangipani Palm Leaf Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Green and White Floral Leaves Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag golden Christmas Tree with Star Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody BagMy Little Nest Women's Top Handle Satchel Handbag Bohemian pinks bluee White Red Patchwork Ladies PU Leather Shoulder Bag Crossbody Bag.Sperry Top-Sider Men's Baitfish Thong Fisherman SandalWomen Waterproof Anti Slip Buckle Tall Rain Boot Back Zipper Warm Snow Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Easy Spirit Antiria3 Slip On Flats, SilverPUMA Womens Avid Evoknit WN's Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Bulldog Womens Flex Mesh Casual shoes Women).Easter bluee Bunny With Egg Women Flex Mesh Lightweight shoes WomenHappy Easter For Girls Women Flex Mesh Lightweight shoes For Women However,WeenFashion Womens Round Closed Toe High Heels PU Frosted Short Plush Solid Boots with Buckle and BowsYooPrettyz Women Asymmetrical Jewel Wedding Wedge Sandal Strappy Dress Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Skull Gun Flex Mesh Lightweight Running shoes

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