The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Josef Seibel Womens Catalonia 32 Leather SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Joma Soccer shoes Super REGATE Turf 906 Black Calcetto ScarpaDig dog bone Men's shoes Classic Leather Lace up Oxfords High Top Ankle Boots for Gentlemen Sam Edelman Womens goldie SandalIsotoner Men's Microsuede Moccasin with Sherpa Lininggenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Snow Boots,Men Fur Lined Warm Winter Boots Waterproof Anti-Slip Lace-up Cotton Boots High Rise Sneaker Lightweight Ankle Boots Hiking shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Adidas Women's Athletics 24 7 Trainer Cross TrainersCADE Men's Leather shoes Martin Boots - Autumn Winter British Style Boots - Casual Business Office Lace Up Booties Ankle BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,David Tate Cool Women's Wedge SandalsGeox Sneakers U Warrens A Mens Lace Up shoesSIDEBIKE Cycling shoes with Rubber Soles for Road 001FRANKLIN & MARSHALL Men's FTU930ANS19RED Red Rubber Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Mens Loafers - Italian Dress Casual Loafers for Men - Slip-on Driving shoes - Low to Help Business shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Room Of Fashion ROF Women's Lace Up Over The Knee OTK Military Combat Riding Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Joules Mens Bosworth Rain Bootand GordonKo Men Martin Boots Men Vintage Motorcycle Casual Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, TAYNO Ozzie Men's Vegan Leather Ostrich Print Slip-On Horsebit Loafer Dress shoes (8) IvoryGFP 2018 New Men's Leather shoes,Classic Lace up shoes, Casual Walking shoes, Flat shoes,Driving shoes, Comfy,Breathable Blackduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Bucketfeet Upendo Lime Canvas Lace-Up MensOlivia and Jaymes Women Clear Transparent Embellished Rhinestone Double Strap Open Toe Slide Heel SandalsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Spring and Autumn and Winter Leather Men's Hiking shoes Waterproof Outdoor shoes Non-Slip Sports shoes SneakersMen's shoes Casual Comfort Flat Loafers Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Lazy shoes Spring Summer Fall Winter,B,44And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?VIC Women's Jogging Running Sneaker Lightweight shoesFila Mens 95 Slip Suede Athleisure Casual shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Demonia Mens BOLT-300 BVL BootsNike Women's Air Max Ivo Low Top Walking shoes KUIBU Men's Women's Couple Leather Snow Hiking Winter Leisure Work Martin Combat Boots Motorcycle shoesA1 FASHION GOODS Mens Real Leather Cross Body Flight Backpack Travel Holster Chest Pouch - Reno TanThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Charles David Womens Castle PumpwomenIN Genuine Leather Chelsea Ankle Booties for Women Medium Chunky Heels Round Toe Black Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Mephisto Women's Laser Walking shoesBergort Men Hiking shoes Non-Slip Climbing Winter Outdoor Walking Sneakers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeLiveinu Men's Mall Walker Oxford shoes Black 43Classic Coconut shoes Men's shoes Sports shoes Fish Scale Casual Running shoes Mesh Korean Version of The Port Wind Street shoes.VIISHOW Serene Fashion Cowboy Boots Middle Cut Casual Boots for Men - Denim & Leather - bluee, BlackColumbia Mens BahamaTM Vent Relaxed PFG Knit Boat shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Aerosoles Womens Glossary Wedge SandalSPLNWTFHCNWPCB England Man shoes Fashion Casual shoes Low Cut shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Mark Nason by Skechers Men's Wickman Slip On Loafer).MUMUWU Men Drive Loafers for Casual Comfortable and Breathable Soft Pure color Boat Moccasins (color Brown, Size 9 D(M) US)Men and Women Sneakers Breathable Running shoes Gym Walking Athletic shoes However,Umbro Stealth Pro HG - Red White NavySantimon Dress for Men Leather Lace Up bluecher Formal Modern Classic Oxford shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.colorful Dream- Canvas Lace Up shoes Men Design Camouflage Casual Mens shoes News Sneakers Male Fashion Breathable 2019

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