The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Black Frye Womens Lena Low Lace SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Silver Women's Fishing Mouth Sandals Slippers with high Drops and Non-Slip Open high Heels Party flip FlopsBlack Jessica Simpson Womens Divella Leather Open Toe Casual Cashmere Soft ECCO Mens Soft 8 Tie SneakerBlack , metallic gold-white Nike Jordan Kids Air Jordan 4 Retro Bg Basketball shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, - CARTEL Women's Abril in Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Tan Pu Cambridge Select Women's Faux Fur Fold Over Cuff Chunky Lug Sole Ankle BootieMoss Suede Me Too Womens Zena 14 Leather Almond Toe Ankle Fashion BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Black Women's Pointed High Heel Sand Drag Fish Mouth Open Toe Non-Slip High Heel Beach Flip Flop Summer Sandals (Heel Height 12 cm)Silver Grey Geox Women's Jearl A SandalBlack Tarmac Fanta ECCO Men's Biom Venture Gore-tex Hiking shoesWhite Night Metallic Grey Five adidas Powerlift.3.1 shoes Men's Weightlifting I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. SD01-Road-Black red Smartodoors Sidebike SD002 Men's All-Around Road Cycling shoes with Carbon Soles), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. gold shoes Women's Pleaser Heels Open Toe Sandals,Pointed Cross Strap High Heels,Slip on Lightweight Stiletto Heel Footwear), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Black Women's Round Head Open Toe High Heel Slippers Shining Rhinestone Gladiator Flip Flops Sandals Cozy Slippersand Black Winter Women Wedges High Heels Over The Knee Slip-On Round Toe Height Increasing Snow Boots Warm Fashion shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Silver gold Leopard Glitz Mesh Sam Edelman Women's Yaro Heeled SandalBlack Baffin Men's MUSKOX Snow Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). M Cole Haan Men's Original Grand Plain Toebluee (Navy 002 Nvy) Swims Braided Lace LoaferLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Grey adidas Tubular Doom PK - S74921Black Skechers for Work Women's 76553 Synergy Sandlot Steel Toe Lace-Up Work shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Black Geox Womens Mauvelle 6 Heeled SandalStone Metallic ECCO Women's Yucatan Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).- ZooSurf Dental shoes Comfy Uniform Sneakers blueeNude T-JULY Women's Sandals Career Sheepskin Solid Buckle Strap Fashion High Square Heel shoes Handmade Back Strap Sandals Black Ant b Marco Tozzi Womens Premio Booties 25489Mushroom Suede Blondo Womens Villa Waterproof Ankle BootieThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Silver Satin Badgley Mischka Womens Dillon Heeled SandalTan Cheetah Imsu Cambridge Select Women's Classic Open Toe Ankle Strap Stiletto High Heel Sandalfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Black Baffin Women's Kara-W-40-Degree C Boot, Removable LinerCore Black Silver Metallic Footwear White Adidas Womens Ligra 5 Volleyball shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeFuxia Greatonu Womens Slingback Kitten Dress Pump50 Pairs Slippers Women and Men Disposable Portable Spa Slippers-Hotel Pull Plush Quality Slippers Women and The Disposable Slippers Men Non-Slip Sole White Unisex Spa-.Ash Isotoner Zenz Women's Stretch Satin SlipperSilver Cambridge Select Women's Low Top 90s Ugly Dad Glitter Lace-Up Chunky Fashion Sneaker At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Yellow 100 pairs Disposable Slippers,spa Slippers Unisex Spa Slippers Disposable Men's Slippers 100 Pairs Men's Slippers Men's Hotel Foot Massage Slippers Women Non-Thickening Home Hospitality GuestsWhite Adidas Womens Samba Casual Athletic & Sneakerstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (- Adidas Mens F 22 PK gold Desert Burgundy - B41736).- Adidas Campus Mens shoes Tactile Green Footwear White Footwear Black bz0082gold Lucy YSL Women's Classic Plain gold Chain Shoulder Bag (Made in France) However,Dark Beige Patent Pu Cambridge Select Women's Mary Jane Platform High Heel PumpRed Glerups AR Rubber shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.- ANGELA MITCHELL DAMABIAH - Nude

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