The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Voovix Quick Dry Aqua Socks shoes Slip-on Water shoes Barefoot shoes for Run Swim Yoga Walking Fashion shoes Men and WomenThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Mamamoo 2019 New Women Flat Heel shoes Fashion Summer Autumn Bow Ties Square Toe Boot Casual SandalsTamaris Women's 23743 Low-Top Sneakers T-JULY Womens's Fashion Leather Flats Running Sports Sneakers Slip On Comfortable Dress Loafers Casual Walking shoesFox Plush Top Sneakers For Womengenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Saborz Fashion High Heels Knee Boots Patent Leather Pointed Toe Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Skull With Bones Walking Sneakers For WomenFrench Bulldog Sneaker Women shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Easy Spirit Womens Kailynne2 Wedge SandalFidgetFidget Sweet Womens Sneaker Round ToRhinestonFlower Decor Casual Boat shoes Pull On EUR36=US5=UK3YUBIN Sandals Flat Mid Heel Simple Wild shoes Word Buckle Harajuku Women's shoes (Size 37)SEERTED Cat Face Heart Pink Background Womens Slip On Canvas shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. KR Strikeforce Womens Curve Bowling shoes- White Scarlet Paisley), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Fashion shoesbox Women PU Leather Zipper Ankle Boots Waterproof Buckle Strap Plush Mid Heel Casual Short Western Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nine West Womens Magdor Fabric Heeled Sandaland Genepeg Womens Sandals Peep Toe Thin Heel High Summer Black White Cover Heel shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, SEERTED Provence Lavender Flower Purple Canvas shoes Women Slip OnSEERTED Pink Flamingo Pineapples and Exotic Leaves Comfortable Sneakers for Standing All Dayduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). DETAIWIN Women Casual Canvas Loafers Flats Round Toe Comfort Ankle Strap Slip On Embroider Ladies Platform shoesCCOCCI Women Slip-On Wedge SneakerLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AmoonyFashion Women's Solid Soft Material High Heels Buckle Open-Toe SandalsExcellent.c Autumn and Winter New Women's Down Jacket Boots Warm Snow BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Nina Women's Ivelis Dress PumpWebb Perkin Women Boots Lace Up Sexy Square High Heels shoes Flats Warm Winter Boots Flock Leather Lady Over The Knee.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Btrada Women's Snow Boots Women Platform Thick Plush Winter Snow shoes Zipper Waterproof Non-Slip BootiesFly London Women's Phil Ankle Boot Vimedea Womens Round Toe Mary Jane Heeled Rhinestone Sexy Pumps Wedding Bride OL DressAustralia Luxe Womens Galla Leather Gladiator Sandals Ivory 8 Medium (B,M)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Women's Ankle Boots, Spring Autumn Martin Boots High-top Casual shoes England Academy Deck shoes European Booties (color B, Size 39)DETAIWIN Women Block Low Heel Oxfords Wingtip Patchwork Perforated Shallow Mouth Bow Casual Flat Brogue shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Circus by Sam Edelman Womens Kiki Heeled SandalLiusuper Womens Girls Cute Animal Hippo Plush Slippers Slip On House Indoor shoes Anti-Slip There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeERSER Different Fruits On Grey Background Lightweight Running shoes Women WideERSER Pink Camouflage Cargo Athletic Running shoes Women.FORTUN High-Heeled Boots Women's Pointed Toe Boots Popular Boots Winter Ankle BootsEoyles gy African Daisy Plant Women's Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Basketball shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ERSER Pineapples and Tropical Flowers Geometry Retro Running shoes WomenERSER Citrus Lemon Graphics Running shoes Wide Width Womentherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (ERSER Abstract Wave Womens Brooks Running shoes Size).ERSER Black Cat and White Dog Running shoes for Plantar Fasciitis for WomenWomen's Lamb Hair Bag Female Bag Crossbody Shoulder Bag for Women Leather Bag Chain Cross Body Bag Crossbody Purse However,Forever Freya-23 Womens Cork Look Platform Ankle Strap Low Wedge Sandals,Black,5.5AdeeSu Womens Chunky Heels Round Toe Outdoor Mesh Legging Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.MeetU_JHX Boots Women's Ankle Booties with Heel PU Casual - Brown Black

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