The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nike Women's Zoom Condition Trainer 2 CrossThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Circus by Sam Edelman Women's Christina PlatformKenneth Cole New York Mens String Along Slip-On Loafer Top Moda Womens Page-43 Mid Calf Round Toe Slouched High Heel BootsPUMA Women's Adela Low-Top Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Steve Madden Men's Freedomm Fashion Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Themost Womens Glitter Sequins High Heels Closed Pointy Toe Stiletto Evening Party Pumps shoesCole Haan Womens Elbridge Ballet Ii Ballet FlatWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Charles Albert Women's Cablee Combat Boot with Fold-Over CuffGiorgio Brutini Mens Ward OxfordFashion Heel Womens Low Heel Pointed Toe Handmade Stretch Leather Above The Knee Boot BlackJerusalem Sandals Men's Bashan Slide Sandal I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Cambridge Select Women's Closed Round Cap Toe Woven Comfort Ballet Flat), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Slip-On Flat Faux Fur Slide Sandal), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, WestCoast Mara-05 Womens Ankle Strap Comfort Criss Cross Platform Wedge Sandalsand Madden girl Women's Draaft Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, David Tate Rudy Women's SandalSkechers Women's Kiss Secret Wedge Pumpduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Keds Women's Kickstart Leather SneakersWalking Cradles Women's Sophia Nude Patent Heels 6.5 MLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Deer Stags Men's Lancaster Slip-On LoaferSuperga Women’s 2730-sueu Gymnastics shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Bettie Page Womens Bp475-mallory PlatformSkechers Womens Glide Ultra Boat shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).2 Lips Too Womens Too Natasha Fashion BootSeychelles Womens Rehearse Dress Pump Original Penguin Mens Damon SneakerSammitop Women's Fashion Pointed Toe Stiletto Skyhigh Heels Pumps Sexy Slip On Dress shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kenneth Cole REACTION Womens Ready Mary Jane Sneaker SneakerKEEN Women's Clearwater CNX Sandalsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.UUFLYME Winter Hiking Boots of Faux Fur for Men and Anti-Collision Work shoesDonald J Pliner Womens Mylo Heeled Sandal There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNine West Women's Pristine Fabric SneakerNaturalizer Women's Carly 3 Sneaker.Gome-z The New Large Size 34-47 All-Match Occupation Woman shoes Date Pearl Diamond Princess shoes Office shoes Women PumpsEasy Spirit Ulana N S Loafer At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, LizForm Open Toe Rhinestones Studded Sandal Strappy Slingback Evening Wedding Heeled SandalsSoludos Women's Wink Embroidered Smoking Slippertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (BalaMasa Girls Double Breasted Solid Low Heels Imitated Leather Boots).Staheekum Men's Plush Shearling Lined SlipperBCBGeneration Women's BG-Donald Slip-On Loafer However,Kelsi Dagger Brooklyn Womens Crown Flat SandalGrafters Mens Assault 2.0 Leather Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.New Balance Mens 99v2 Flexonic Spiderman Disney Training Cross-Trainer shoes

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