The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Odema Womens LED shoes High Top Sneakers Light up Winter Ankle Snow BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Lucksender Womens Side Zip Pointed Toe Chunky High Heel Ankle High BootsLucksender Womens Platform High Stiletto Heels Assorted colors Party Dress Pumps with Sequins Enzo Angiolini Women's Vlade Wedge SandalWalking Cradles Women's Viv Dress Pumpgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Touch Ups Women's Tamara Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Women's Open Toe Lace Up Sandals, Strappy Sandals Openwork Sandals Women's Open Toe Lace Up Sandals Ladies Roman Lace Up Sandals Women's,Black,40Qi meims Women Sneakers Manual Embroidery Heightening Canvas Round-Toe Anti-Skid Outdoor Running Sports shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Women Sandals Pu Leather Platform Peep Toe Women shoes Square High Heel Sexy Women Sandals 34-43

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,KUUI Womens Fashion PU Leather Sneakers Low Top Lace up shoesFan-Shu Woman Slippers Lady shoes Woman Open Toe Summer high HeelsJQfashion Women's High-Heeled shoes Coarse High-Heeled Sandals Leopard-Print Slippers Sexy High Waterproof Platform 17 cmDNJKSA New Sandals 2009 Spring and Summer Female Square Head Hollow Rough Heel Tripper High-Heeled shoes Korean Edition Leisure Fashion Single shoes Female I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. 2019 Summer Women Real Fox Fur Slipper Mixed color Ladies Slipper Outdoor Indoor Sandals), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. JQSM Casual Tote Crossbody Bags for Women 2019 Large Capacity Women Handbag Luxury Handbags Women Bags Designer), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Women High Heel Sandals Ankle Strap Peep Toe Thick Heel Sandals Summer Vacation shoes,Beige,8and Ches Serpentine Gladiator Heels Sandals shoes Sexy Thin Heel Women shoes Peep Toe Ankle Strap shoes Size 35-40). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, VIMISAOI Women's Comfort Warm Zipper Casual Ankle Martin BootsWYMBS Autumn and Winter Gifts Women's shoes Flat Flowers, Sequins, shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Jia Jia Women's Bridal 2018 Peep Toe Hight Heel Satin Wedding shoesPREtty-2 Women Slipper's 2019 Summer Slippers Genuine Leather shoes Women High Heels Rhinestone Summer shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Crunchy Candy Pointed Toe Pearl Pumps Mules Slingback High Heelsspell color Women High Heels 9 cmJaHGDU Fashion Women Sandals Summer Beach Boom shoes Simple Classic Wild Comfort Basic Casual Stylish Daily Convenient Middle Heel SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Ches golden Sandals Crystal Leopard Open Toed High Heels Sexy Women Transparent Cover Heel Buckle Strap Sandals Pumps 11CMWomen Ankle Strap Flat Sandals,Bohemian Metal Rhinestone Elastic Clip Toe Slip On Summer Beach Casual Sandals,Beige,US9.5B(M).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Style Shallow Single Girls shoes high Heels Women Pumps Thin Heel Classic red nede Beige Sexy PromJaHGDU Women's Outdoor Round Toe Platform High Heels Wedges Sandals Buckle Slope shoes Fashion Leisure Elegant Cosy Wild Tight Super Quality for Womens CHENSF Womens Waterproof Fur Boots No-Slip Platform Snow BootsVIMISAOI Party Wedding Prom Women High Heel shoes Sexy Stiletto PumpsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Lucksender Womens Vintage Style Patent Leather Mid Chunky Heel Lace Up Oxford shoesHEDDK Summer Women Fashion shoes Breathable Sandals Diamond The Rough Sandals Slippers Women's Sandals Beach Sandals Plus Size 35-40factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.JaHGDU Fashion Women Sandals Stylish Vintage Casual Wild Breathable Summer Boom shoes Wedges Weave Middle Heel SandalsGIY Women Slip-on Sneakers Casual Walking shoes Fashion Non Slip Breathable Mesh Trail Running shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGIY Women's High Heel Sandal Open Toe Ankle Buckle Strap Stiletto Pump Sandals Dress Casual Party shoesLAFS CSTLAV Fashion Basic Women's Med Heel Ankle Boots Short Booties - C10-1 Black.Mao YiE 2019 Office Ladies Pumps Pointed Toe Flock Women Pumps High Thin HeelsALWAYS ME Sandal for Womens Beach Sandals Summer Slippers Platform Open Toe shoes Ladies Sandals Sandalia At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Roxy - Womens Bayshore Ii Low shoes, 9.5 B(M) US, CamelSan hojas Peep Toe Platform High Heelstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Star Harbor White Female shoes Women's shoes High Heels Nightclubs Thin Platform Night Shallow Mouth).Spring Summer Large Size 35-41 Pumps Woman Peep Toe Cool High Square HeelPFSNR Fashion Personality Pattern Men's shoes Driving shoes peas shoes Lok Fu shoes Summer Lazy shoes Men's Boat shoes Business Casual Soft shoes Walking shoes However,Gcanwea Women's Sexy Pointed Toe Buckle Ankle Strap Kitten Heel Patent Leather Sandals Elegant Dress Girl Antiskid Leg Length Open Back Joker Skinny Black 4 M US Leather SandalsOLIVIA K Women's Close Almond Toe Block Mid High Stacked Heel Ankle Bootie Side Zipper Decoration I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.JQSM Fashion Brand Woman's Handbags Purses Sbody Bags for Women Ladies Luxury Pu Leather Shoulder Messenger Bag

Axd-Home 10cm High Heels Lady Green Satin Female Wedding JaHGDU Fashion Women Platform Slip On for Ladies shoes Casual Flats Moccasins shoes Low Top Lace Up Fashion Sneakers

Women shoes Thin High Heel Stilettos Pointed Toe Patent Leather shoes 4.7 inch Plus Big Size 15