The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. La Canadienne Women's Mindie BlackThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Adidas Flock Tp Fle Womens Style S19866Easy Spirit Women's Corvina Wedge Sandal Nine West Women's Speakup Flat Black 12 M USLifeStride Women's See This Pump, Black, 6.5 M USgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Muck Boot Women's Arctic Adventure Boot, Black Hot Pink, 10 M USand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. L'Artiste by Spring Step Womens Berry-tq Slide SandalAsh Flat Gladiator Sandals - Massai Black US8M EU38.5We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Alma en Pena Women's Suede Diamanté Sandals Beige

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,JaHGDU Middle Heel Solid color Formal and Casual Universal Wild Leather shoes Women Square Head Metal Button shoes Work Leisure shoesSandals Ladies Black and White high Heel Rivet Bag with Sandals Women's shoesBarenx Women's Round Toe Thick Rubber Outsole Pigskin Lining Cow Leather Ankle BootsThe Beste of us Genuine Leather Men Sandals Summer Cow Leather for Beach Male shoes Mens Gladiator Sandal Plus Size 39-48 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Indian Wholesale 50 pc lot Bulk Mandala Hand Bag Ethnic Clutches Purse Shoulder for Ladies by Panchal Creation-14), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. KAHLO SHOES Oxford Wine Leather Women Burgundy), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Ariat Women's Cruiser Slip-on shoes, Sunburn Brown Turquoise Oil Cloth Print, 7.5 B USand Womens Nike Kim Jones Air Zoom LWP '16 JCRD Rare -UK 5 EUR 38.5 US 7.5). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Blowfish Women's Vynn Fashion Boot, Black Rocksteady Polyurethane, 6 Medium USCrocs Women's Cap Toe Mirror W Ballet Flatduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). ENVAL SOFT 3298300 Women's Sandals with Heel in Black Naplak Leather Made in U-MAC Women Sneakers Increased Inside shoes Anti-Slip Thick Sole shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Women Fashion Heel Height Sandals Gladiator shoes Party golden Silver Wedding SandalsWomen's shoes, Autumn and Winter, Martin Boots, lace, Women's shoes, Women's Boots, Thick Boots, Boots (color B, Size 35)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Ariat Women's Darlin Work Boot, Naturally Dark Brown, 6.5 B USAltra AFW1733G Women's Escalante Running shoes, Magenta - 9.5 B(M) US.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Andre Assous Slipper Sandal Black Suede with Woven Rope Insole Size 7b 6b 5bSigerson Morrison Women's Elisa Boot Vince Women's Bogart Flat Black Size 6.5 MWomen's Suede Summer Sneakers Flat Heel Closed Toe Knee High Boots,A,US6 EU36 UK4 CN36The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Ash Women's Camille Camo Knitted Sock Boots Multi ColouredFerrini Womens Americana Red S-Toe Western Bootfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Orthaheel Women's Vionic, Isabeal Thong Sandalbluendstone Womens's Work Style 741 - Safety shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNew Balance Mens 857 Running shoesDianye e round head flat peas shoes a pedal lazy shoes casual shoes.Summer Large Size Super High with CD Women's Sandals Outdoor SandalsAjit Creation 13-Inch - Navy bluee and Tan Genuine Leather Handbag - Ladies Bag - with Shoulder Strap and Handle At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Plum Women's gold Tote Shoulder Bag - BelenINC International Concepts Womens Caleyy7 Closed Toe Casual Silver Size 7.5therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women's Sperry, Quest Rhythm Boat shoes).JBU by Jambu Longview Women US 6.5 Black Snow BootBella Vita Womens Wow Leather Pointed Toe Classic Pumps, Bone Kidskin, Size 10.0 However,Propet Women's Travel Walker W YellowJaHGDU Ladies Indoor Leisure Slippers High Fashion Fall and Winter Keep Warm Solid color Wild Comfortable Soft Plush Home Cotton Slippers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women's Super high Heel color Sandals Evening shoes with Sandals

GIY Women's Ankle Strap High Heels Platform Sandals Open Toe -Wedding, Party, Chunky Heel Pump Dress Sandals Vida Mia - Women's Adjustable Dance shoes Isabella (silverine Tango, Salsa, Latin)

Fila Women's Memory Resilient 2 Training shoes