The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nine Seven Glossy Patent Leather Women's Pointed Toe High Stiletto Heel Graceful Handmade Fashion Buckle Ankle Strap Women Concise Style Business PumpsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Stiletto Heel Sexy Handmade Ankle Strap Pumps shoesOld Beijing Cloth shoes Women's shoes Shallow Mouth Thousand Layers Flat with Canvas Embroidered Cloth shoes BIOTIME - Kenzie Grey 5 (US Women Size)Meotina Genuine Leather Women Pumps High Heels Pointed Toe Kitten Heels shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Vince Camuto Womens KERRA Wedgeand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Wedopus MW798 Women's Closed Toe Short Chunky Heel Ribbon Ivory Lace Wedding Dress Ankle BootsBabolat Jet Mach II Womens Tennis shoes - PinkWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,MEIZOKEN Women's Peep Toe Gladiator Platform Sandals Classic High Heel Chunky Pump Sandal Ankle Strap Cutout Dress shoesMylu Womens Open Toe Open Back Cutout shoes Lace-up Front Wedge SandalsBastien Industries Women's Fringe Maple Tan Moose Hide Leather Moccasin shoesCharles by Charles David Womens Lena Dress Pump I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Women's Elastic Socks shoes, Running Sneakers Sports shoes Front Strap with Round Head Comfort White, Black Size 35-39), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Stiletto High Heel Peep Toe Strappy Sandals), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nine Seven Women's Patent Leather Square Toe Chunky Heel Handmade Glossy and Comfortable Spring Summer Pumps shoesand Leg Avenue Women's Anna Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, TSIODFO Women Slip on Loafers Flat Platform Breathable Comfort Walking shoes Genuine Cow Leather Fashion Sneakers Youth Big Girls Spring Autumn Ladies Casual Oxford shoes White 6 (505-White-36)Red LingGT Women Casual Snow Boots Warm Zipper Ankle shoes (color Black, Size CA 9)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). UBCA-SOULSFENG Mens Womens Running shoes High Lace up CushioningSneakers Leather Ankle Snow BootLh yu Women Sandals Womens Ladies Mid Low High Heel Prom Strappy Credver Sandals shoes Size Party Wedding, 37, Yellow High QualityLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Adidas aSMC Barricade Boost shoes Women's TennisVionic Women's, Pacific Capitola Thong Style Sandals Navy 10 MAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Lacoste Womens Lt Spirit SneakerMNX15 Women's Elevator shoes Height Increase Taller 3.1 Monaco Black Sneakers.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Nike Women's Air Huarache City UtilityOluKai Ola - Women's Wedge Leather Sandal YZHYXS Platform Sandals for Women Summer Fashion Wedge Walking shoesNine West Women's Levehim SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: ASICS Gel-Pulse 9 G-Tx Mens Running Trainers T7D4N Sneakers shoesNine West Womens Welldone Leather Low Top Lace Up bluee Navy Multi Size 8.5factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Fay Waters Womens Mary Jane Flat shoes Handmade Retro Flowers Round Toe Moccasins Comfort Slip-on shoesWomen's Short Boots Wrinkled Patent Leather Pointed high Heel Martin Boots Side Zipper Rhinestone Metal Decorative Fashion Boots Autumn and Winter Europe and America(35 EU-39 EU),Red,35EU There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSam Edelman Womens Holmes Heeled SandalAerosoles Womens Up High Pump.Lamo Womens Hurricane Chelsea BootWomen's Spring and Summer Mules shoes, Leather Baotou Slippers Fashion Versatile Low-Heeled Cowhide Leather At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Bella Vita Women's Fern Ankle BootCambridge Select Women's Closed Round Toe Glitter Encrusted Stretch Slip-On White Sole Fashion Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (L'Artiste by Spring Step Womens Madalena Ankle Bootie).Gooding Day High Heels Lace Up Gladiator Women Sandals Ankle Wrap Beige Black Red Real Leather Women shoesFrench Connection Women's Nanette Dress Sandal However,CALPIERRE Flats-shoes Womens Leather GreenL@YC Women's Closed Pointed Toe Stiletto High Heels for Wedding Dress Pumps I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Elegant Women's Rhinestone Beach Slipper, Sweet Cool Open Toe Sandals

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