The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Ellie 426-AUBREY 4 Knee High Steampunk Boots with Buckles and Studs Women, Brown PU, 12 SizeThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nipplefor Women Mini Rechargeable 7X Speed Vibrting Waterproof Bullet Breast MassagingMinishion MZ618 Womens Peep Toe Stiletto Heel Slip on Bridal Wedding Satin Sandals shoes HUANGDAISY shoes Star Cats Dark bluee Slip-on Canvas Loafer for WomenSam Edelman Women's Ava Western Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Minishion GYMZ637 Womens Open Toe Kitten Heel Satin Rhinestone Bridal Wedding shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. 1TO9 Womens Square Heels Grommets Urethane Boots MNS03191AN Womens Spikes Stilettos Pointed-Toe Imitated Suede Boots DKU02515We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Minitoo MZLL034 Women's Hidden Platform Handmade Satin Wedding Party Evening Prom Pumps shoesOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Lucky Horseshoe PatternF1rst Rate Cut Out Ankle Boots Peep Toe Strappy High Heel Party Prom Pumps Sandals WomenMadden girl Womens Lorna Open Toe Casual Slide Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Dogs Happy Group Photo), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Scuba Dive Flag), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Ghapwe Women's Elegant Peep Toe Sandals - Buckle Ankle Strap Studded Flowers - Platform Chunky High Heels shoes Pink 8 M USand Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens New Mexico Flag). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Yoome Bamboo Crossbody Bag Handmade Straw Shoulder Clutch Round Summer Beach Purse Tote Handbags for WomenLadola Womens Soft-Ground Waterproof Lace-Up Square-Toe Urethane Pumps shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Minitoo GYMZ686 Womens Ruffles Satin Evening Party Prom Bridal Wedding shoes Pumps Sandals FlatfsMalirona Canvas Beach Bags and Totes for Women Zippered Beach Shoulder Bag Green FlowerLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Gome-z Women's British Style Lace Up Chunky Heel shoes Woman Round Toe Platform Pumps 34-43Cambridge Select Women's Slouch Back Corset Lace Flat Knee-High BootAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Ugly Christmas Full Warmth HomeGedigits Women's Comfy Buckle Strap Round Toe Hidden Medium Wedge Heel Side Zipper Ankle Boots Beige 7.5 M US.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Ghapwe Women's Elegant Checkered Elastic Pointed Toe Mid Chunky Heel Slides Sandals Wine Red 8 M USOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Happy Polar Bear Whale Vacation Penguin Mum and Baby Ladies Women Sexy Thigh High Biker Boots 2018 Autumn and Winter Block Chunky Mid Pointed Boots Suede Over Knee Slim fit Elastic Force BootsALLAK Women's Winter Carnival Snow BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Fanciest Women's Pointed Pumps Heels Sandals Bow Wedding Bridal shoes White 0723-11FWoman's Wedges Platform Rome Style Square Chunky High Heel Hollowing Cross Hook&Loop Casual Summer shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Oman FlagLace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Floral Ribbon Breast Cancer Awareness There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Guatemala FlagOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Monteblack Flag.Wedge Ankle Bootie for Women High Heels with Lace up Oxford Sneakers Work Casual BootsWeenFashion Women's Buckle Kitten Heels Cow Skull Patch Solid Open Toe Sandals At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Corky Big Eyes Blowfish Puffer FishOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens LGBTQI Logo Roller Discotherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Pink Donut Sprinkles).Owaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Norway Flag National EmblemOwaheson Lace-up Sneaker Training shoes Mens Womens Trinidad and Tobago Flag National Emblem However,Kyle Walsh Pa Women Ballet Flats shoes Ladies Slip-on Bow-Knot Plaid Vintage Moccasins shoes womenAugust Jim Women's Suede Loafers Casual Pointed Toe Moccasins Wild Driving Flats shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Summer-lavender Women Boots Winter shoes Women Platform Thick Plush Warm Waterproof high Snow Boots Botas

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