The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nike Men's Downshifter 8 (Gs) Low-Top SneakersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Rockport Men's Classic Tradition Bike Toe Slip On OxfordBostonian No16 Soft Low Mens Suede Brown Casual Dress Lace Up Oxfords shoes Adidas outdoor Mens Terrex Swift RNike Mens Full Zip Hoodiegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Steve Madden Men's BREEZES-L Loafer, Black Leather, 12and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. 361 Degrees Mens Sensation 2Adidas Originals Men's Alphabounce Trainer CrossWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Tecnica Women's Diablo Max Ms TrainersFuntasma Walker-130, Men's Ankle BootsECCO Men's Seattle Apron-Toe Derby shoesCaterpillar Men's Diagnostic Hi Cut Cap Soft Toe Waterproof Boot I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Adidas Originals shoes - Adidas Originals Verit...), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Forsake Driggs - Men's Waterproof Leather Non-Slip Hiking Sneakerboot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, QIKAI Desert Combat Boots Men's Summer Hollow Breathable Men's Boots Men's Mesh Outdoor Casual Bootsand GTYW, Men's Business Casual shoes, British Leather Leather Pointed Men's shoes, Derby Lace Suit shoes Daily Wear Party Wedding, 38-43). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Frau Verona 25E3 Desert Boot MenCarhartt Men's CMS4191 Waterproof Black Romeo Soft Toe Work Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Bates Men's Leather Uniform Work shoesConverse Men's Chuck Taylor Midsoles High Top Sneakers shoes-5Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Stacy Adams Men's Madison OxfordEasy B's H968 DB Havant 6E Velcro, color BlackAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?NIUMT Spring Men Business Leisure Loafers English shoes Pointed Lightweight Comfort OutdoorNIUMT Men's Leather shoes Business Trend Pointed Wearable Deodorant Breathable.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).MUYII Oxfords Dress Leather shoes For Men Handmade Lace-up Plain Toe Business Men's shoes Casual Mens Non-Slip Comfortable shoesECCO Mens BC Bike Toe Slip On Casual Oxfords Dr. Scholl's shoes Men's YellowstoneTeva Men's M Arrowood Waterproof Hiking shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Skechers USA Men's Duson Steno Chukka Boot,Wheat,9.5 M USDiesel Men's D-Velows Lace Vintage-Sneaker Midfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Mephisto Men's Loafer Flats Black Black 5 UK Black Size 11 UKTretorn Men Rubberboot Bo Winter Navy There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeTOTO - H80062-2.8 Inches Taller - Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Navy bluee Super Lightweight Casual shoesBates Men's Ulta-lites 8 Inches Tactical Sport Comp Toe Work Boot.NIKE Men's Kaishi Athletic shoes (9 D(M) US, Gunsmoke Black-White)Columbia Montrail Men's Trans Alps F.k.t. Ii Sneaker At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ARIAT Men's Groundbreaker Waterproof Work BootDC Grey-Grey-Black Vandium SE shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Caterpillar Tess Steel Toe Work Boot Women's).Adidas New Adizero 5 Star 2.0 Mid Mens 11.5 Football Molded Cleats Plat NVY WhtCole Haan Men's Grant Canoe Camp Slip-On Loafer However,CCILU Men's Short Ankle Boots, Horizon ChelseaChaco Men's Z Volv 2 Flume Royal 8 M I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.CLARKS Men's Lorwin Mid Chelsea Boot

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