The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AZMODO Women's Pumps Fashion Transparent Patchwork Cusp Thin Heels shoes G15The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,XoiuSyi Women Thin High Heel Martain Boot Leather Lace-Up Solid color Square Toe Boot for LadyMEIZOKEN Women's Retro Platform Sandals Ladies Summer Casual Stylish Open Toe Ankle Strap Flat shoes KemeKiss Women Comfort Flat Ballerinas shoesReport Womens Laxy Platform Dress Sandalgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Sperry Women's Bahama Canvas Boat shoes Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Mark Lemp Classics Womens Marlene Closed Toe MulesGrasshoppers Womens Windsor Lace Core SneakerWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women Pumps Thick high Heel Leather Shallow Mouth Pointed Hollow Out Single shoesSkechers Kicks Free Rider Womens Leather Sneakers - BootsArtfaerie Womens Transparent Clear Slingback High Heels Stilettos Platform SandalsAicciAizzi Women Casual Knee High Riding Boots Block Heel I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GIY Women's Open Toe Platform Flat Sandals Comfort Slip-On Anti-Slip Summer Beach Slide Sandals), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Winter Women Over Knee Long Boots with Fur Women Boots Casual Boots shoes high Heels Stretch Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Havaianas Womens Slim Animals Rubber Flip-Flopsand Adrienne Vittadini Womens PREMIRE Closed Toe Mid-Calf Fashion, Black, Size 5.5). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, FizaiZifai Women Fashion Lace Up Pumps shoesFANIMILA Women Solid Boots Zipperduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Woman's Beach Slipper Flower Artificial Roman Style T-Strap Summer Flip FlopsEDL PRESENTS POP Womens Ames Closed Toe Ankle Fashion BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? FizaiZifai Women Mary Jane Buckle Strap Pumps Black Size 33 AsianFANIMILA Women Sweet Flower Flats Pumps with Height IncreasingAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Sandals for Women Fashion Non-Slip Slippers Beach Flip Flops Flower Wedge Breathable Sandals ThongOnewus Women Knee-High Jack Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).U-MAC Womens Fashion Sneakers Ladies Mesh Casual Fitness Walking shoes Anti-Slip Casual SneakersZX Boots Women's Mid Block Heel Mary Jane Ladies Ankle Strap Office Work Pump Court shoes Material Girl Womens Blaire4 Fabric Open Toe Special Occasion, Black, Size 6.5La Auténtica Leon - Leather Espadrille, Unisex Adult, bluee JeansThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: New Thick with Sandals Korean Version of The Open-Toed Word Belt Decorative Buckle Female Sandals with Shallow Mouth Female shoesCharter Club Women's Printed Slippers Tropical Floralfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Pophight Women Casual shoes Vulcanize Sneakers Platform Trendy Leisure Soft Leather Zapatillas women Wedge Height IncreasingSummer-lavender Knitted Sock Short Boots Stretch Pleated Chelsea Ankle Boots Martin Boots Winter shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAmerican Rag Womens Kandic Almond Toe Mid-Calf Fashion Boots, Brown, Size 5.5Zarbrina Women Flip Flops Ostrich Feather Slippers Fur Square Heel Ladies Wedges Indoor Slides Bohemian Style shoes.York Zhu Home Slippers for Men Women,Washable Closed Toe Cotton Indoor Slipper Non SlipBingHang Men Mesh Quick Drying Aqua Water shoes Walking shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, CYBLING Fashion Bohemian Wedge Sandals shoes for Women Elastic Strap shoesWomen Summer Slippers Wedges Peep Toe Sandals Woman Mid Heel shoes Lady Ethnic Slides shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Tennis shoes for Women Bad-Bunny-Music-Rabbit- Quick-Drying Walking shoes).Davikey Women's Original Classic Hollow Out Flat EspadrillesMODEOK Women's Elastic Side Panel Ankle Bootie However,Huicai Women's Sandal shoes Spring Summer Fish Mouth High Heel Fashion SandalsAnne Michelle Womens Ladies Peep Toe Strappy High Heels I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Melady Women Casual Low Heels Knee Boots Zipper

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