The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Women's Azura, Azaria Tall Shaft Boots BROWN 4 MThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Adidas Womens I-5923 Athletic & SneakersMerrell Womens TIDERISER MOC Sneakers Hoka One One Women's Elevon Running shoesOTBT Women's Des Peres Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Tory Burch Women's Metallic Marion Quilted Leather Fashion Sneakersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. JACKAL Women's JL55054 gold Leather SneakersPalladium Womens Pampa Hi Knit Lp Chukka BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Berghaus Supalite II GTX Walking BootsStuart Weitzman Womens Newdeal Solid Block Heel Platform SandalsIcebug Women's Zeal OLX Studded Traction Running shoesStuart Weitzman Women's Fringelica Dress Pump I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Piazza Damen Schtiefelette grey, 961537-9), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Ash Womens Cult Leather Trainers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Lady Couture Rhinestone Mesh Dressy shoes, Silkand Hoka OneOne Women's Clifton 5 Black White Running shoes 8 Women US). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Helens Heart Bling Boots (11, Red)Pikolinos Women's Royal W3S-5781 Slip Onduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Frye Women's Phillip Studded Harness BootVISCATA Handmade in Spain Palamos 3 Wedge, Soft Suede, Ankle-Strap, Closed Toe, Espadrilles HeelLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? ASH Bowie Ladies Wedge BootGentle Souls Women's Priscille Low Heel Dress PumpAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Palace Style Beaded Diamond Styling Dinner Bag golden Red Crystal Diamond Handbag Women's ClutchRiva Womens Toucan Suede Ladies Boot Tan Size UK 4 EU 37.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Madden girl Womens ELOISEE Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots, Brown, Size 7.0Mascot F0076-910-09-1141 Paldor Safety shoes, W11 41, Black Ajvani Women's Bridal High Heel Pumps Court shoes SizeMARC ELLIS Women's MCGLCAS000005027E bluee Suede Ankle BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: MOMA Boots Womens Leather orangeWomen's Boots Autumn and Winter Low Boots Short Boots Pointed High-Heeled Bare Boots Martin Boots Fashion Boots Leather Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Lowa Womens Renegade Gore-Tex Lo Nubuck shoes blueeWomen's High Heels, Buckled Rhinestone Pointed Sexy Party Dress shoes (color Black, Size 5.5 US) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeEarth Origins Womens Sander MolassesNewton Running Women's Fate III.Manitobah Mukluks Snowy Owl Grain Waterproof CocoaAteliers Italian Brown Leather Boot. At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Gola Women's Specialist Indian Teal Off White Trainers, bluee Ea, 8 UK 41 EUWolky Women's Red Multi color Fantasy Jewel 38 M EUtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Adidas Performance Men's X 15.2 CG Soccer shoes).Pons Quintana Woman's Black Woven Leather Sandal with FlowersJeffrey Campbell JN017 Wedge Heel shoes Womens Sue Grey Fashion Footwear However,J.Renee Women's Cinna Slingback SandalAntelope Women's 535 Leather Woven Cap & T Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.ASICS - Gel Lyte Iii - H7N3N0101

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