The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Geox Women's W Club 18 Fashion SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Frye Women's Melissa Button Back Zip Fashion BootKENDALL + KYLIE Women's MCGLCAT000005143E Black Leather Sandals Bikkembergs Words 889, Women's Low TrainersAdidas Kanadia 7 TR Gore-Tex Women's Trail Running shoes - AW17generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Schutz Women's MCGLCAT000005245E Light bluee Leather Heelsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Alegria by PG Lite Women's Halli Slip OnMOA Women's MCBI36605 White Leather Slip On SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Rieker Womens Z0444 Swetlana 44Ten Points Women’s Victoria TrainersCRIS VERGRE' shoes Woman Sandals H0102P BruciatoBorn Kary Women's Tassel Flat, Black, Size 7.5 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. OTBT Women's Metaphor Wedge Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Munro Women's Ashlie Grey Crosshatch flats 11 M), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Pikolinos Sandals W8K-0536 CADUQUE Ivory 41 Beigeand Paul Mayer Attitudes Womens blueff Closed Toe Ballet Flats). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Coclico Womens 3025-johnny D'Orsay PumpLoeffler Randall Women's Reina Mid-Heel Dress Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Calaier Womens Caclearly Closed-Toe 5CM Block Heel Slip-on Mule shoesEl Naturalista N722 Women's Nido BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Orthaheel Men's Vionic, Contest Walking SneakerSigerson Morrison Womens Beryl PumpAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Cole Haan Womens Etta BootieFly London Cupido Mo Magenta Size 41.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Adidas Women's POD-S3.1 Legend Purple Hi-Res Yellow CG6177Trendy Knee-High Boots Women's shoes Large Sizes 34-43 Leisure Female Riding Boots Woman Schutz Womens Ramon White Transparent 5.5 MMANRINO Honey Ladies Classic Round Toe Butterfly Low Heel Pump shoes Women Soft shoes Flat Bow TieThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: L.K. Bennett Womens Erin MulePiazza Damen Schtiefelette grey, 961537-9factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Stuart Weitzman Womens Detail Suede Loafer Casual shoesMatisse Women's Subway Cuff Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWolky Comfort Sandals Arena BlackFly London Womens Bite 850 Leather Sandals.Imagine Vince Camuto Womens Zahira Heeled SandalRieker Women Flat Slipper Beige, (ICE) M1350-81 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Mercurial Vapor World Cup X FGNike WMNS Metcon DSX Flyknit 2 Womens 924595-100therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Marc Defang New York Women's Handmade 2-5mm Mixed AB Crystal Luxury Bridal Wedding Heels).Jump Jumpsoles Speed Training System 5.0 MensNike Womens Air Max 1-100 Leather Detachable Logos Fashion Sneakers However,women Karan Womens Rae SlideAquatalia Womens Zaira Perforated Calf Oxford I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Mona flying Leather Slip on Penny Loafer Casual Flat shoes for Women Ladies Girls

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