The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Uciquzhon 2018 Spring Poodle Printed Women's Vulcanized shoes Sneakers Lace Up ChaussureThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Aerosoles Women's Day Strole BootAAKOPE& Cute Cartoon Flat shoes Women Lacing Casual Canvas shoes Youth Girl Brand Design High-top Vulcanize Canvas shoes H5255AK 41 Sernfinjdr Women's sea Cute Octopus Whale Shark Fashion Casual Canvas Slip on shoes Athletic Cycling Sneakers shoesSernfinjdr Women's Green cat Cactus Outdoor Fashion Casual Canvas Slip on shoes Athletic Running Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Jellypop Women's Thursday Boot Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Sernfinjdr Women's Live Sugar Pansy Petals Fashion Casual Canvas Slip on shoes Fashion Running Sneaker shoesSernfinjdr Women's Gemmy Halloween Pumpkin Fashion Casual Canvas Slip on shoes Sports Running SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,WeiPoot Women's PU Solid Buckle Round-Toe Kitten-Heels SandalsWeiPoot Women's Round Closed Toe PU Zipper High-Heels Mid-top Platform BootsSernfinjdr Women's pinks Skull and Bones Cross Casual Canvas Slip on shoes Fashion Running Sneaker shoesNerefy Large Size 32-45 Concise Ankle Strap Women shoes Woman Summer Sandals shoes Woman Footwear I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Zalin Fur Slippers Open Toe Fox Fur Beach Slides Women's Furry Flip Flops Fox Hair shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. WeiPoot Women's Kitten-Heels Round Closed Toe Pumps-shoes, Apricot, 35), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Summer Men Slippers Male Leather Flip Flops Snake Print Vintage Casual Beach Sandals Non-Slide shoes shoesand Canvas High Tops Sneakers Fashion Casual Lace up Canvas shoes for Women Men). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Mamamoo Women Sandals Mixed color Fashion Metal Decoration Buckle women shoes Sexy Party Daily shoesWeenFashion Women's High-Heels Solid Frosted Round Closed Toe Pumps-shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). WeenFashion Women's Pull-on PU Pointed Closed Toe High-Heels Solid Pumps-shoesWeenFashion Women's Buckle Pointed Closed Toe Kitten Heels PU Solid SandalsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? WeenFashion Women's Solid PU High-Heels Round Closed Toe Lace-up Pumps-shoesAlso Easy Stylish Womens Fashion Peep Toe Extreme High Stiletto Heels Casual Shopping Sandals Unique StyleAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Heels Pointed Toe Women Pumps Ruffles 12 cm Sexy Buckle Strap Party shoes Wedding shoes 014C1867-49AmoonyFashion Womens Kitten Heels Cow Leather Frosted Short Plush Solid Boots with Chunky Heels and Zipper, Black, 7.5 B(M) US.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Low Heel Slip On Fringe Loafer shoes Women Round Toe Flats shoesNine West Womens Querin Leather Dress Sandal Esquire Footwear Build-A-Bear Workshop Toothy Shark Character Slipperscolorful Vintage Elephant Woman's Net Fashion Running shoes Hunting MiniThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Beer Label Women Neutral Running shoes Funny ActiveRe-Sole Women's Cross Sandal Flatfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Owen Moll Women Flats, Red Black Grey PU Ballet Slip-On Bowtie Office Single shoesPleaser Women's purplete-06 Peep-Toe Pump There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSeven Dials Womens Bellicia SandalWeenFashion Women's Kitten-Heels Soft Material Solid Buckle Open Toe Sandals.Womens No Show Socks with Antibacterial, Non Slip Flat Boat Line Low Cut Socks (6 Packs)Shevalues Women's Memory Foam Slippers Cotton SPA Slippers Winter Warm Open Toe House Slippers Grey 28 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Roxy Dusk bluee South Beach II Womens Flip FlopAneikeh Rhinestone Women High Heels Ladies shoes Fashion Wedding shoes Sexytherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (WeiPoot Women's Round-Toe Low-Heels PU Solid Buckle Sandals).WeiPoot Women's Kitten Heels Soft Material Solid Buckle Open Toe SandalsWeiPoot Women's Pointed Closed Toe Spikes Stilettos Soft Material Solid Buckle Pumps shoes However,Newnorthstar Trainers Women Sports shoes Air Cushion Female shoes Breathable WomenAllhqFashion Women's PU Round-Toe Low-Heels Lace-up Assorted color Pumps-shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.QianQianStore Office Lady Sandals Round Toe Beads Ankle Strap Summer shoes Women Concise Daily Dress Footwear

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