The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Fashion Focus Womens Jenny-18 Fashion SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Twin Tigers Harley 14 Womens Military Lace up Studded Combat BootWinter Women Boots Solid Lace-up Fashion Round Toe Boots Slip-On Thigh High Motorcycle Booties SOUL Naturalizer Womens Skyla Ankle BootPaw Prints And Bones Women‘s Casual Sneakers Canvas Sports New Vegangenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Autumn and Winter Youth with Thick Heel Long Barrel Female Pure color Knight Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Spring Step Womens Adorable Heeled SandalBella Marie MARCY-26 Women's Casual Side Zipper Flat Snow Ankle BootieWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,3D Flower Pattern Women Toe Sandals Comfortable Breathable Flip Flops Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Slipper,Pink,41H-M-STUDIO Bag Fashion Backpack Oxford Cloth Casual Shoulder Bag Soft Leather Bag Red and Green Stripes PuMofgr Women's Leather Mid Heels New shoes Classic Black White Pumps shoesSunny Doll Women High Heels Pumps Fashion shoes 2019 Lace Pearl Heeled Wedding shoes Bride shoes 9.5CM I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Qqqq Women's Pumps Shallow Slip-on Wild Ladies Thin Heels Party shoes pu Leather), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Casual classic lace low cut shoes Korean-style womens shoes comfort chunky platform shoes the girls ' height increasing shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Sammitop Women's Open Toe Ankle Strap Sandals Ladies Indoor Outdoor Flats shoesand LLBubble Women Kitten Heels Crystals Wedding shoes for Bride Pointed Toe Ankle Strap Buckle Heeled Formal Party Dress Pumps 99634A-10). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, YSLC Strawberry Plants Floral Running shoes Lightweight Women Sneaker Trail Running Comfort shoesAugust Jim Women Flats shoes,Slip-On Plaid Butterfly-Knot Anti-Slip Ballet Flatsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). DecoStain Women's Black Ornamented Knee High Platform BootsWeiPoot Women's Frosted Round Closed Toe High Heels Solid Pumps-shoes, Black, 37Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? QDKM Rivet Women Slippers Wedges high Heel Platform Transparent PVC Sandals Female Outdoor Beach Slides SlipperWeenFashion Women's Pull On Peep Toe High Heels Imitated Suede Assorted color SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?bluee dinosaur animal Casual Sneakers for Women cute Comfortable and Lightweight Running shoesLOKIJM Tiger Leopard Jaguar Wild Skin Prints Fashion Sneakers Women for Women Slip on Shock Absorption Girl Running shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).New Year 2019 Pig in The Autumn Wind Walking shoes for Women Low Top Highly Breathable Running shoesLeopard cheetah print kaleidoscope Yellow purple Canvas Sneakers for Women Low Top Wear-Resistant Running shoes For Girls Sugar Women's Vael Perf Open Toe Stacked Block Heel Fashion Bootie Ankle BootGiles Jones Women Wedges Flip Flops Flat Sandals,Boho Woven Platform Buckle Open Toe Beach shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Wild Little Cat Pearl high-Heeled shoes Elegant Women Pumps Mesh high-Heeled shoes Platform high Heel SandalsRedBrowm-women Rivet Retro shoes Side Zipper High Heel Boots Casual Leather Martin Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Round Pigs Couple Ladies Sneakers for Women Classic Skid-Proof Run shoesCage the elephant Ladies Sneakers for Women cute Wear-Resistant Running shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeHuntty High end Fur Slippers Fox Fur Slides Flat Plush shoes Room Slipper Cute Pantufa,7B(M) US,PurpleStripesAir force desert camo Sneaker shoes for Women Lo-Top Shock Absorption Running shoes.WeiPoot Women's Pointed Closed Toe Buckle Frosted Low-Heels Sandals, EGHLH004638WeiPoot Women's High-Heels Solid Pull-On PU Pointed-Toe Pumps-shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Cute christmas polar bear Gym shoes for Women Print Breathable Running shoesLemon Tree Tropical Fruit Plimsolls Women for Women Lo-Top Quick-Drying Best Running shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (LOKIJM Unicorn Cherry White Plimsolls Women for Women New Skid-Proof Running shoes for Girls).Highest Heel The Women's Kissable-41 Ankle BootJiang Barefoot shoes New Summer Breathable Men's and Women's Single shoes Beach Quick Dry shoes Non-Slip Sports Aqua shoes Garden Park Driving Boating Swim shoes However,Skechers Womens Bobs Clique - Fierce Heart SneakerKyle Walsh Pa Women Classic Sandals Stiletto Ankle Strap Female Casual Stylish Pumps shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Steve Madden Womens Softey-p Slide Sandal

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